Health Facts About Tangerine

Tangerine is a citrus fruit that grows in tropical areas of Asia.

People take tangerine peel by mouth for asthma, indigestion, clogged arteries, cancer prevention, chemotherapy side effects, colon and rectal cancer, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), liver disease, and lung cancer.

Tangerine fruit and peel can be eaten as a food. Tangerine fruit can also be made into a juice.

How does it work?

Tangerine might reduce the risk of cancer. The tangerine peel seems to stop the growth of, or increase the death of, cancer cells.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for…

Cancer. Early research suggests that eating a lot of oranges and/or tangerines is linked to a lower risk of developing a type of cancer called nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This type of cancer affects the area behind the nose, where it meets the throat. Asthma. Indigestion. Clogged arteries. Chemotherapy side effects. Colon and rectal cancer. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Liver disease. Lung cancer. Other conditions.

Tangerine is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts found in foods. There isn’t enough reliable information available about tangerine to know if it is safe when used as a medicine.

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking tangerine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Read More

Facts About Healthy Parenting

Parenting is one of the most researched areas in the field of social science. No matter what your parenting style or what your parenting questions or concerns may be, from helping your child avoid becoming part of America’s child obesity epidemic to dealing with behavior problems, experts can help.

In his book, The Ten Basic Principles of Good Parenting, Laurence Steinberg, PhD, provides tips and guidelines based on some 75 years of social science research. Follow them and you can avert all sorts of child behavior problems, he says.

Good parenting helps foster empathy, honesty, self-reliance, self-control, kindness, cooperation, and cheerfulness, says Steinberg, a distinguished professor of psychology at Temple University in Philadelphia. It also promotes intellectual curiosity, motivation, and encourages a desire to achieve. Good parenting also helps protect children from developing anxiety, depression, eating disorders, antisocial behavior, and alcohol and drug abuse.

What are the principles of good parenting?

1. What you do matters. Whether it’s your own health behaviors or the way you treat other people, your children are learning from what you do. “This is one of the most important principles,” Steinberg explains. “What you do makes a difference…Don’t just react on the spur of the moment. Ask yourself, What do I want to accomplish, and is this likely to produce that result?”

2. You cannot be too loving. “It is simply not possible to spoil a child with love,” Steinberg writes. “What we often think of as the product of spoiling a child is never the result of showing a child too much love. It is usually the consequence of giving a child things in place of love — things like leniency, lowered expectations, or material possessions.”

3. Be involved in your child’s life. “Being an involved parent takes time and is hard work, and it often means rethinking and rearranging your priorities. It frequently means sacrificing what you want to do for what your child needs to do. Be there mentally as well as physically.”

Being involved does not mean doing a child’s homework — or correcting it. “Homework is a tool for teachers to know whether the child is learning or not,” Steinberg says. “If you do the homework, you’re not letting the teacher know what the child is learning.”

4. Adapt your parenting to fit your child. Keep pace with your child’s development. Your child is growing up. Consider how age is affecting the child’s behavior.

“The same drive for independence that is making your 3-year-old say ‘no’ all the time is what’s motivating him to be toilet trained,” writes Steinberg. “The same intellectual growth spurt that is making your 13-year-old curious and inquisitive in the classroom also is making her argumentative at the dinner table.”

5. Establish and set rules. “If you don’t manage your child’s behavior when he is young, he will have a hard time learning how to manage himself when he is older and you aren’t around. Any time of the day or night, you should always be able to answer these three questions: Where is my child? Who is with my child? What is my child doing? The rules your child has learned from you are going to shape the rules he applies to himself.

“But you can’t micromanage your child,” Steinberg notes. “Once they’re in middle school, you need to let the child do their own homework, make their own choices and not intervene.”

6. Foster your child’s independence. “Setting limits helps your child develop a sense of self-control. Encouraging independence helps her develop a sense of self-direction. To be successful in life, she’s going to need both.”

It’s normal for children to push for autonomy, says Steinberg. “Many parents mistakenly equate their child’s independence with rebelliousness or disobedience. Children push for independence because it is part of human nature to want to feel in control rather than to feel controlled by someone else.”

7. Be consistent. “If your rules vary from day to day in an unpredictable fashion or if you enforce them only intermittently, your child’s misbehavior is your fault, not his. Your most important disciplinary tool is consistency. Identify your non-negotiables. The more your authority is based on wisdom and not on power, the less your child will challenge it.”

8. Avoid harsh discipline. Parents should never hit a child, under any circumstances, Steinberg says. “Children who are spanked, hit, or slapped are more prone to fighting with other children,” he writes. “They are more likely to be bullies and more likely to use aggression to solve disputes with others.”

“There are many other ways to discipline a child — including ‘time out’ — which work better and do not involve aggression.”

9. Explain your rules and decisions. “Good parents have expectations they want their child to live up to,” he writes. “Generally, parents overexplain to young children and underexplain to adolescents. What is obvious to you may not be evident to a 12-year-old. He doesn’t have the priorities, judgment, or experience that you have.” Read More

Osteoporosis Treatments

  1. Osteoporosis is a condition in which your bones break down faster than they rebuild.
  2. Treatment usually includes a combination of medications and lifestyle changes.
  3. The most aggressive way to prevent additional bone loss is to take prescription medications

Osteoporosis

Bones in your body are living tissues that constantly break down and replace themselves with new material. With osteoporosis, your bones break down faster than they regrow. This causes them to become less dense, more porous, and more brittle.

This weakens your bones and can lead to more fractures and breaks.

There’s no cure for osteoporosis, but there are treatments to help prevent and treat it once it’s diagnosed. The goal of treatment is to protect and strengthen your bones.

Treatment usually includes a combination of medications and lifestyle changes to help slow the rate of bone breakdown by your body, and in some cases, to rebuild bone.

Causes and risk factors

Most people have their highest bone mass and density when they’re in their early 20s. As you age, you lose old bone at a faster rate than your body can replace it. Because of this, older people are at a higher risk of osteoporosis.

Women also have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis because they typically have thinner bones than men. Estrogen, a hormone that occurs in higher levels in women than in men, helps protect bones.

Women who are going through menopause experience a decrease in estrogen levels, which leads to more rapid bone breakdown and can result in brittle bones.

Other risks factors include:

Osteoporosis medications

The most aggressive way to prevent additional bone loss is to take prescription medications, such as the drugs listed below.

Bisphosphonates

Bisphosphonates are the most common osteoporosis drug treatments. They’re typically the first treatments recommended for women who are postmenopausal.

Examples of bisphosphonates include:

  • alendronate (Fosamax), an oral medication people take daily or once per week
  • ibandronate (Boniva), available as a monthly oral tablet or as an intravenous injection that you get four times per year
  • risedronate (Actonel), available in daily, weekly, or monthly doses in an oral tablet
  • zoledronic acid (Reclast), available as an intravenous infusion that you get once every one or two years

Antibody

There are two antibody drugs on the market.

Denosumab

Denosumab (Prolia) links to a protein in your body that’s involved in bone breakdown. It slows the process of bone breakdown. It also helps maintain bone density.

Denosumab comes as an injection you get every six months.

Romosozumab

The new antibody romosozumab (Evenity) helps to increase bone formation. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in April of 2019. It’s intended for postmenopausal women with a high risk of fracture. This includes women who:

  • have risk factors for fracture
  • have a history of fracture
  • haven’t responded to or can’t take other osteoporosis drugs

Romosozumab comes as two injections. You get them once a month for up to 12 months.

Romosozumab does come with boxed warnings, which are the FDA’s most serious warnings. It may increase your risk of heart attackstroke, and cardiovascular disease. You shouldn’t take romosozumab if you’ve had a heart attack or stroke within the past year. Read More

What is Crohn’s Disease? : Symptoms, Causes, Diet

Crohn’s (or Crohn) disease is a type of chronic bowel inflammation. It usually affects the small intestine and less commonly the colon, but it can involve the entire gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, esophagus, and stomach. The chronic inflammation that is the basis of Crohn’s disease causes ulceration, swelling, and scarring of the parts of the intestine that it involves. It eventually requires surgery for most people. Other names for Crohn’s disease include granulomatous enteritis, regional enteritis, ileitis, and granulomatous colitis when it involves the colon

What Causes Crohn’s Disease?

The cause of the chronic inflammation in Crohn’s disease is unknown. The leading theory is that inflammation is initiated by bacteria that reside within the intestine. Whereas most inflammation usually is suppressed, and the disease caused by the inflammation subsides, in Crohn’s disease the inflammation is not suppressed, and the inflammation continues. The continuing inflammation probably occurs because of environmental factors (i.e., the bacteria) as well as genetic factors that affect the immune system. Crohn’s sometimes runs in families, too. Having a parent or sibling with the disease raises your own risk.

Crohn’s Disease in Children & Teens

Crohn’s disease most commonly affects children in their late teens and young adults in their 20s and 30s. Nevertheless, it can affect infants and young children as well. Crohn’s disease is not rare; 100,000 teens and preteens in the U.S. have Crohn’s disease. For children, the social problems created by the symptoms of Crohn’s disease are difficult to deal with since the disease can restrict activities. The chronic inflammation can also add to the social difficulties with stunted growth and delayed puberty. Emotional and psychological factors always must be considered in young people with Crohn’s disease.

How Does Crohn’s Disease Affect the Intestines?

The first signs of Crohn’s disease are small ulcers, called aphthous ulcers, caused by breaks in the lining of the intestine due to inflammation. The ulcers become larger and deeper. With the expansion of the ulcers comes swelling of the tissue, and finally scarring of the intestine that causes stiffness and narrowing. Ultimately, the narrowing can obstruct the flow of food being digested in the intestines. The deepening ulcers can fully penetrate the intestinal wall and enter nearby structures such as the urinary bladder, vagina, and parts of the intestine. These penetrating tracts of inflammation are called fistulas.

How is Crohn’s Disease Different from Ulcerative Colitis?

Both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic diseases of intestinal inflammation. Whereas ulcerative colitis only involves the colonic portion of the gastrointestinal tract, Crohn’s disease can affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Whereas the inflammation of ulcerative colitis involves only the superficial lining of the colon, the inflammation of Crohn’s disease goes deeper into the intestinal walls and, as previously mentioned, even beyond the walls.

Inflammation in ulcerative colitis is continuous; that is, the inflammation does not skip areas. Thus, the colon is involved from the most proximal margin of the inflammation – be that ascending, transverse or sigmoid colon – all the way to the anus. On the other hand, the inflammation of Crohn’s disease can be present in several portions of the intestines with skipped areas without inflammation in between. Read More

How Does Alcohol Affects The Human Body

It Goes to Your Head

How does alcohol affect the brain and body? Alcohol starts to alter your brain about 30 seconds after you drink it. You may feel mentally slower and have slower reflexes. You may notice changes in your mood and balance. Alcohol impairs long-term memory so you may not remember what you do and say when you drink.

A Smaller Brain

Another way in which alcohol affects the body is that long-term drinking shrinks the brain and alters the way the brain works. Drinking alters and shrinks brain cells. This, in turn, compromises your ability to learn, think, and remember. You may have difficulty regulating body temperature and controlling your movements.

Does It Help You Sleep?

Alcohol makes you sleepy, so you are likely to fall asleep more easily. But alcohol hurts the quality of sleep. Your system will metabolize alcohol while you are sleeping. Once it’s out of your system, you’re likely to wake up and toss and turn. Alcohol impairs REM sleep, the type you need to feel well rested and restored. Alcohol also increases the risk of nightmares and vivid dreams. You may also wake up to use the restroom more often.

Increase in Stomach Acid

Alcohol affects your stomach lining and increases the production of stomach acid. When acid builds up while you’re drinking, you may get nauseated and throw up. Long-term heavy drinking may lead to stomach ulcers. High levels of stomach acid impair your ability to feel hungry. Heavy drinkers often also develop nutrient deficiencies.

Diarrhea and Heartburn

Alcohol irritates the intestine and colon and may decrease the transit time of food through your system. The result is that you may get chronic diarrhea if you drink regularly. Alcohol also relaxes the sphincter in your esophagus that keeps stomach contents where they belong. When this happens, you may have acid and food come back up your esophagus, leading to heartburn and reflux.

Always Running to the Bathroom

Your brain makes antidiuretic hormone, or ADH, that affects your kidneys’ ability to make urine. When you drink, your brain doesn’t make as much of this hormone, so you have to urinate more often. This may then lead to dehydration. Chronic heavy drinking is not only toxic for your body, it is also hard on your kidneys. Read More

Benefits And Health Risks Of Eating Bananas

Bananas are one of the most popular fruits worldwide. They contain essential nutrients that can have a protective impact on health.

Eating bananas can help lower blood pressure and may reduce the risk of cancer.

This article will take a look at the potential health benefits of bananas, such as improving heart health and promoting regularity. It also examines the possible health risks that doctors have associated with bananas.

The following sections explain some of the possible health benefits of bananas.

The nutrition information comes from the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) FoodData Central database.

Daily requirements are from the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. These are for adults, but they are approximate, as the values vary according to a person’s age and sex.

Blood pressure

The American Heart Association (AHA) encourage people to lower their intake of salt, or sodium, and increase their consumption of foods that contain potassium. Potassium can help manage blood pressure and reduce strain on the cardiovascular system.

A medium banana provides almost 9% of a person’s daily potassium needs, according to the nutritional information from the above sources.

Asthma

A 2007 study suggested that eating bananas might help prevent wheezing in children with asthma. One reason for this could be the antioxidant and potassium content of bananas. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings.

Cancer

Laboratory investigations have suggested that lectin, a protein that occurs in bananas, may help prevent leukemia cells from growing.

Lectin acts as an antioxidant. Antioxidants help the body remove molecules known as free radicals. If too many free radicals build up, cell damage can occur, potentially leading to cancer.

In 2004, researchers noted that children who consumed bananas, orange juice, or both appeared to have a lower risk of developing leukemia.

The study authors suggested that this could be due to the vitamin C content, as this, too, has antioxidant properties.

Heart health

Bananas contain fiber, potassium, folate, and antioxidants, such as vitamin C. All of these support heart health.

A 2017 review found that people who follow a high fiber diet have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those on a low fiber diet. Those who consumed more fiber also had lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol.

Diabetes

The American Diabetes Association recommend eating bananas and other fruit as they contain fiber. They note that eating fiber can help lower blood sugar levels.

The author of a 2018 review concluded that eating a high fiber diet could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and may lower blood sugar in those who already have the disease.

Digestive health

Bananas contain water and fiber, both of which promote regularity and encourage digestive health. One medium banana provides approximately 10% of a person’s fiber needs for a day.

Bananas are also part of an approach known as the BRAT diet, which some doctors recommend for treating diarrhea. BRAT stands for bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast.

Diarrhea can lead to a loss of water and electrolytes, such as potassium. Bananas can replace these nutrients.

High fiber foods can trigger bloating, gas, and stomach cramps in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a 2012 study. However, bananas may improve symptoms, the authors concluded.

The Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America recommend banana as a snack food in their diet plan.

Preserving memory and boosting mood

Bananas contain tryptophan, an amino acid that may help preserve memory, boost a person’s ability to learn and remember things, and regulate mood.

Potassium

Bananas are rich in the mineral potassium. Potassium helps maintain fluid levels in the body and regulates the movement of nutrients and waste products in and out of cells.

Potassium also helps muscles to contract and nerve cells to respond. It keeps the heart beating regularly and can reduce the effect of sodium on blood pressure. Read More

What Causes Muscle Cramps?

What are muscle cramps?

A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. When we use the muscles that can be controlled voluntarily, such as those of our arms and legs, they alternately contract and relax as we move our limbs. Muscles that support our head, neck, and trunk contract similarly in a synchronized fashion to maintain our posture. A muscle (or even a few fibers of a muscle) that involuntarily (without consciously willing it) contracts is in a “spasm.” If the spasm is forceful and sustained, it becomes a cramp. Muscle cramps often cause a visible or palpable hardening of the involved muscle.

  • muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax.
  • Muscle cramps can occur in any muscle; cramps of the leg muscles and feet are particularly common.
  • Almost everyone experiences a muscle cramp at some time in their life.
  • There are a variety of types and causes of muscle cramps.
  • Muscle cramps may occur during exercise, at rest, or at night, depending upon the exact cause.
  • Dehydration is a common cause of muscle cramps.
  • Numerous medicines can cause muscle cramps.
  • Most muscle cramps can be stopped if the muscle can be stretched.
  • Muscle cramps can often be prevented by measures such as adequate nutrition and hydration, attention to safety when exercising, and attention to ergonomic factors.

Muscle cramps can last anywhere from a few seconds to a quarter of an hour or occasionally longer. It is not uncommon for a cramp to recur multiple times until it finally resolves. The cramp may involve a part of a muscle, the entire muscle, or several muscles that usually act together, such as those that flex adjacent fingers. Some cramps involve the simultaneous contraction of muscles that ordinarily move body parts in opposite directions.

Muscle cramps are extremely common. Almost everyone (one estimate is about 95%) experiences a cramp at some time in their life. Muscle cramps are common in adults and become increasingly frequent with aging. However, children also experience cramps of muscles.

Any of the muscles that are under our voluntary control (skeletal muscles) can cramp. Cramps of the extremities, especially the legs and feet (including nocturnal leg cramps), and most particularly the calf (the classic “charley horse”), are very common. Involuntary muscles of the various organs (uterus, blood vessel wall, bowels, bile and urine passages, bronchial tree, etc.) are also subject to cramps. Cramps of the involuntary muscles will not be further considered in this review. This article focuses on cramps of skeletal muscle. Read More

Symptoms Of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

  • Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes.
  • The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult-onset diabetes.
  • Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the “good” cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood.
  • If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional

How does diabetes make you feel?

  • hunger,
  • fatigue,
  • skin problems
  • slow healing wounds,
  • yeast infections, and
  • tingling or numbness in the feet or toes.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with “sweet urine,” and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.

Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.

How many people in the US have diabetes?

  • Diabetes affects approximately 30.3 million people (9.4% of the population) in the United States, while another estimated 84.1 million people have prediabetes and don’t know it.
  • An estimated 7.2 million people in the United States have diabetes and don’t even know it.
  • Over time, diabetes can lead to blindnesskidney failure, and nerve damage. These types of damage are the result of damage to small vessels, referred to as microvascular disease.
  • Diabetes also is an important factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), leading to strokes, coronary heart disease, and other large blood vessel diseases. This is referred to as macrovascular disease.
  • From an economic perspective, the total annual cost of diabetes in 2012 was estimated to be 245 billion dollars in the United States. This included 116 billion in direct medical costs (healthcare costs) for people with diabetes and another 69 billion in other costs due to disability, premature death, or work loss.
  • Medical expenses for people with diabetes are over two times higher than those for people who do not have diabetes. Remember, these numbers reflect only the population in the United States. Globally, the statistics are staggering.
  • Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States listed on death certificates in recent years. Read More

Early Warning Signs Of Psychosis

Psychosis is a condition that affects the mind and alters a person’s perception of reality. Early psychosis symptoms include change in thinking, feeling, perception and behavior along with hallucinations and delusions.

Psychosis happens over a period of time and describes when someone starts to lose contact with reality. It is a condition that affects the mind and alters a person’s perception of reality. If you are experiencing a psychotic episode, it means that you have lost your attachment to reality and may find it difficult to know what’s real and what isn’t. 

Psychosis is a symptom of a mental health condition like bipolar disorderdepression, or schizophrenia. It develops over time and can worsen as you experience more episodes. 

It may not always be easy to identify the early warning signs of psychosis. However, if you know what to look for, you may be able to treat it before it worsens. 

Psychosis can happen in children and adults. Sometimes, it may develop during teenage years, and there are different signs to look for in children and young adults. Some symptoms can last less than an hour and some may persist for months. 

It’s important to monitor yourself or someone you suspect is developing psychosis so you can get the proper mental health treatment.

Signs and symptoms of early psychosis

Early psychosis symptoms can be gradual or have a sudden onset. Psychosis is a symptom of a greater mental health condition. Monitoring your symptoms and understanding the signs of psychosis may help you be more aware of oncoming episodes and get the treatment you need. 

Early psychosis symptoms include: 

Changes in thinking

Before you are aware you are experiencing psychosis, your thoughts might race through your mind or come very slowly. You may get confused and your thoughts might get jumbled in your mind. If someone you know has psychosis, you may notice their sentences not being coherent or that they are sharing strange ideas. 

Changes in behavior

As psychosis develops, you may start to feel suspicious or like everyone is watching you. You may be paranoid and feel anxious or worried. These feelings may cause you increased stress and can affect your eating and sleeping habits.

Changes in feeling and perception

Changed perceptions may make you confused about what’s real and what’s imaginary. You may start to have strange or intense beliefs about people and the world. You could start perceiving people’s intentions differently than they are, which could also lead to paranoia about them. Read More

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