Internal and External Hemorrhoids: Symptoms, Treatment, Pictures & Causes

What are hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids (Piles) are blood vessels located in the smooth muscles of the walls of the rectum and anus. They are a normal part of the anatomy and are located at the junction where small arteries merge into veins. They are cushioned by smooth muscles and connective tissue and are classified by where they are located in relationship to the pectinate line, the dividing point between the upper 2/3 and lower 1/3 of the anus. This is an important anatomic distinction because of the type of cells that line hemorrhoid, and the nerves that provide sensation.

What are the internal and external hemorrhoids?

Internal hemorrhoids are located above the pectinate line and are covered with cells that are the same as those that line the rest of the intestines. External hemorrhoids arise below the line and are covered with cells that resemble skin.

What are the symptoms of hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids become an issue only when they begin to swell, causing itching, pain, and/or bleeding.

External hemorrhoids are located underneath the skin that surrounds the anus and is lower than internal hemorrhoids.

Normal hemorrhoidal tissue cannot be seen since they must first swell and become inflamed or develop a clot to cause symptoms. One can see swollen external hemorrhoids or internal prolapsed hemorrhoids exposed outside the anus but internal hemorrhoids cannot be seen because they remain inside the anus. A thrombosed hemorrhoid will appear as a lump at the anal verge, protruding from the anus, and will be dark bluish in color because of the blood clot contained inside the swollen blood vessel. Non-thrombosed hemorrhoids will appear as a rubbery lump. Often more than one swollen hemorrhoid appears at the same time.

Hemorrhoids are caused by swelling in the anal or rectal veins. This makes them susceptible to irritation.

While the presence of hemorrhoids is a reflection of the normal anatomy, most people and care professionals refer to hemorrhoids as an abnormal finding because they only present when they swell and cause problems.

Hemorrhoid swelling occurs when there is an increase in the pressure in the small vessels that make up hemorrhoids causing them to swell and engorge with blood. This causes them to increase in size leading to symptoms. Increased pressure may be caused by a variety of factors:

A low-fiber diet and smaller caliber stool cause a person to strain when having a bowel movement, increasing the pressure within the blood vessels.Pregnancy is associated with hemorrhoid swelling and is likely due to increased pressure of the enlarged uterus on the rectum and anus. In addition, hormonal changes with pregnancy may weaken the muscles that support the rectum and anus. Prolonged sitting on the toilet may increase pressure within the hemorrhoid blood vessels. Obesity, Diarrhea, both acute and chronic Colon cancer, Previous rectal surgery, Spinal cord injury and lack of erect posture. Read More

How to Get Rid of a Sinus Infection Fast: Complications

Sinuses are air-filled cavities that are present in the facial bones and drain into the nose. They are present in the forehead, cheeks, and near the eyes.

A sinus infection occurs when the sinus gets blocked and mucus gets trapped in it. This causes viruses, bacteria, or, rarely, fungi to grow easily due to the moist and stagnant environment. A sinus infection is also called acute sinusitis.

There are several ways to treat a sinus infection and relieve symptoms at home with the help of home remedies and over-the-counter medications such as nasal sprays, painkillers, and antihistamines. It can take about 7 to 10 days to get rid of a sinus infection.

9 signs and symptoms of a sinus infection

Symptoms of a sinus infection include

  • Nasal obstruction
  •  Postnasal drip (dripping of mucus from the nose into the throat causing irritation and coughing while lying down)
  • Headache
  • Facial pain
  • Cough
  • Fever 
  • Fatigue 
  • Halitosis (bad breath)
  • Pain over the upper teeth  

How is a sinus infection treated?

Medical treatment

  • Over-the-counter medications: OTC medication like paracetamol or ibuprofen can help relieve symptoms such as pain and fever.
  •  Nasaldecongestant sprays: Nasal decongestant sprays like oxymetazoline can reduce swelling and congestion, relieving the nasal obstruction. But, they should not be used for too long as long-term use of these sprays can damage the nasal mucosa. Hence, should be used after consulting with a doctor.
  • Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed by a doctor to get rid of the infection faster and prevent complications.

Supportive treatment

People may be able to treat a sinus infection at home by relieving painful symptoms and taking steps to allow the immune system to fight off the infection.

  • Humidifiers: A humidifier adds moisture to the air which reduces dryness and softens dried mucus, helping the mucus clear out easily.
  • Nasal irrigation: Nasal irrigation with saline using products like a neti pot, a small container with a spout, is used to irrigate the nose. If saline is not readily available, a mixture of one-half teaspoon of salt and one-half teaspoon of baking soda mixed with two cups of sterile water can be prepared. Nasal irrigation can flush out excess mucus, bacteria, and crusts, reducing nasal congestion.
  • Steam inhalation: Steam inhalation can moisten dried mucus and crusts, reducing nasal congestion. Excessive steam inhalation or keeping the face too close to the steamer should be avoided as it could cause dryness.
  • Rest: Getting adequate rest can help the body recover faster.  
  • Hydration: Drinking plenty of clear fluids will help you remain hydrated. Staying hydrated can also help moisten and loosen mucus and clear congestion.
  • Warm compresses: Applying a warm compress over the face can help reduce pain and nasal congestion.

What are the complications of a sinus infection?

Though most cases of acute sinusitis do not have any complications, if not treated, the following rare complications can occur

  • Chronic sinusitis: Acute sinusitis that is not treated properly can lead to chronic sinusitis with multiple flare-ups of acute infection.
  • Meningitis: Sinus infection can cause inflammation of the tissues and fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  • Osteomyelitis and cellulitis: Infection can spread to the bones (osteomyelitis) or skin (cellulitis).
  • Eye complications: The infection spreads to the eyes causing redness of the eyes, watering of the eyes, protrusion of the eyeball, decreased vision, or blindness. Read More

4 Negative Effects of Eating Too Many Grapes

Grapes are incredibly good for you, giving you a variety of different vitamins, minerals and even fiber. It is possible, however, to eat too many grapes. Always pre-portion your grapes, instead of nibbling right out of the bag. Otherwise, you might experience negative side effects. If you’re allergic to grapes, you might even have problems simply by coming into contact with them.

Weight Gain

Sure, grapes are relatively low in calories. One full cup, which is about 30 grapes, has fewer than 105 calories. The issue is, however, that grapes are easy to pop in your mouth. If you sit down with a bag of grapes and turn on the TV — before you know it — you could eat most of the bag. Suddenly, your 105-calorie snack doubles or triples in calories, eventually giving you the same number of calories you’d get from an entire meal. If you eat large portions of grapes on a regular basis without first measuring your portion size, the additional calories could cause you to gain weight.

Carb Overload

You need carbohydrates in your diet. They convert to your body’s main source of energy — glucose. Carbohydrates should make up 45 to 65 percent of all the calories you consume, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. That’s 900 to 1,300 calories from carbs or 225 to 325 grams daily, based on a 2,000-calorie diet. That 1-cup serving of grapes has more than 27 grams of carbs. If you’re snacking on grapes freely and not paying attention to your serving size, you could quickly consume more than your daily carb allotment. You’ll also throw off your balance of macronutrients, meaning that if your carb intake is high, your protein and fat intake may be lacking.

Gut Issues

You’ll get a decent dose of fiber from grapes — roughly 1.5 grams from 1 cup. That’s probably not enough to cause any disruption in your gut. If you snack on a large serving of grapes, however, you increase your fiber intake. If you don’t regularly consume a lot of fiber, you could notice an uncomfortable rumbling in your tummy after devouring a large, fiber-rich portion of grapes. Because your body isn’t used to the fiber, it becomes difficult to pass stools, which is a sign of constipation. Sometimes, extra fiber has the opposite effect, however, leaving you with diarrhea, as your system tries to expel the additional fiber.

Allergy Attack

It’s not common to have a grape allergy, although it can happen. If you’re allergic to grapes, you might get hives or red patches on your skin by touching grapes or shortly after eating them. In severe cases, you might have difficulty breathing or go into anaphylactic shock. Just because you have an allergic reaction to grapes, however, doesn’t necessarily mean that you’re allergic to the fruit itself. You may actually be allergic to the pesticide on the grapes, or to the yeast or mold that grows on the grapes. The only way to be certain what you’re allergic to is to undergo allergen testing from your physician’s office or via a referral to a testing center. Read More

Updates On the Omicron Virus

On 26 November 2021, WHO designated the variant B.1.1.529 a variant of concern, named Omicron, on the advice of WHO’s Technical Advisory Group on Virus Evolution (TAG-VE).  This decision was based on the evidence presented to the TAG-VE that Omicron has several mutations that may have an impact on how it behaves, for example, on how easily it spreads or the severity of illness it causes. Here is a summary of what is currently known.  

 

Current knowledge about Omicron 

Researchers in South Africa and around the world are conducting studies to better understand many aspects of Omicron and will continue to share the findings of these studies as they become available.  

Transmissibility: It is not yet clear whether Omicron is more transmissible (e.g., more easily spread from person to person) compared to other variants, including Delta. The number of people testing positive has risen in areas of South Africa affected by this variant, but epidemiologic studies are underway to understand if it is because of Omicron or other factors.  

Severity of disease: It is not yet clear whether infection with Omicron causes more severe disease compared to infections with other variants, including Delta.  Preliminary data suggests that there are increasing rates of hospitalization in South Africa, but this may be due to increasing overall numbers of people becoming infected, rather than a result of specific infection with Omicron.  There is currently no information to suggest that symptoms associated with Omicron are different from those from other variants.  Initial reported infections were among university students—younger individuals who tend to have more mild disease—but understanding the level of severity of the Omicron variant will take days to several weeks.  All variants of COVID-19, including the Delta variant that is dominant worldwide, can cause severe disease or death, in particular for the most vulnerable people, and thus prevention is always key. 

 

Effectiveness of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection 

Preliminary evidence suggests there may be an increased risk of reinfection with Omicron (ie, people who have previously had COVID-19 could become reinfected more easily with Omicron), as compared to other variants of concern, but information is limited. More information on this will become available in the coming days and weeks. 

Effectiveness of vaccines: WHO is working with technical partners to understand the potential impact of this variant on our existing countermeasures, including vaccines. Vaccines remain critical to reducing severe disease and death, including against the dominant circulating variant, Delta. Current vaccines remain effective against severe disease and death.   

Effectiveness of current tests: The widely used PCR tests continue to detect infection, including infection with Omicron, as we have seen with other variants as well. Studies are ongoing to determine whether there is any impact on other types of tests, including rapid antigen detection tests.  

Effectiveness of current treatments:   Corticosteroids and IL6 Receptor Blockers will still be effective for managing patients with severe COVID-19. Other treatments will be assessed to see if they are still as effective given the changes to parts of the virus in the Omicron variant.  

 

Studies underway 

At the present time, WHO is coordinating with a large number of researchers around the world to better understand Omicron. Studies currently underway or underway shortly include assessments of transmissibility, severity of infection (including symptoms), performance of vaccines and diagnostic tests, and effectiveness of treatments.    

WHO encourages countries to contribute the collection and sharing of hospitalized patient data through the WHO COVID-19 Clinical Data Platform to rapidly describe clinical characteristics and patient outcomes.  

More information will emerge in the coming days and weeks. WHO’s TAG-VE will continue to monitor and evaluate the data as it becomes available and assess how mutations in Omicron alter the behaviour of the virus.  

 

Recommended actions for countries 

As Omicron has been designated a Variant of Concern, there are several actions WHO recommends countries to undertake, including enhancing surveillance and sequencing of cases;  sharing genome sequences on publicly available databases, such as GISAID; reporting initial cases or clusters to WHO; performing field investigations and laboratory assessments to better understand if Omicron has different transmission or disease characteristics, or impacts effectiveness of vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics or public health and social measures.  More detail in the announcement from 26 November.  

Countries should continue to implement the effective public health measures to reduce COVID-19 circulation overall, using a risk analysis and science-based approach. They should increase some public health and medical capacities to manage an increase in cases.  WHO is providing countries with support and guidance for both readiness and response.  

In addition, it is vitally important that inequities in access to COVID-19 vaccines are urgently addressed to ensure that vulnerable groups everywhere, including health workers and older persons, receive their first and second doses, alongside equitable access to treatment and diagnostics.  

 

Recommended actions for people 

The most effective steps individuals can take to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus is to keep a physical distance of at least 1 metre from others; wear a well-fitting mask; open windows to improve ventilation; avoid poorly ventilated or crowded spaces; keep hands clean; cough or sneeze into a bent elbow or tissue; and get vaccinated when it’s their turn.  

WHO will continue to provide updates as more information becomes available, including following meetings of the TAG-VE. In addition, information will be available on WHO’s digital and social media platforms.  Read More

Stress And Your Health

Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension. It can come from any event or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or nervous.

Stress is your body’s reaction to a challenge or demand. In short bursts, stress can be positive, such as when it helps you avoid danger or meet a deadline. But when stress lasts for a long time, it may harm your health

Considerations

Stress is a normal feeling. There are two main types of stress:

Acute stress. This is short-term stress that goes away quickly. You feel it when you slam on the brakes, have a fight with your partner, or ski down a steep slope. It helps you manage dangerous situations. It also occurs when you do something new or exciting. All people have acute stress at one time or another.

Chronic stress. 

This is stress that lasts for a longer period of time. You may have chronic stress if you have money problems, an unhappy marriage, or trouble at work. Any type of stress that goes on for weeks or months is chronic stress. You can become so used to chronic stress that you don’t realize it is a problem. If you don’t find ways to manage stress, it may lead to health problems.

STRESS AND YOUR BODY

Your body reacts to stress by releasing hormones. These hormones make your brain more alert, cause your muscles to tense, and increase your pulse. In the short term, these reactions are good because they can help you handle the situation causing stress. This is your body’s way of protecting itself.

When you have chronic stress, your body stays alert, even though there is no danger. Over time, this puts you at risk for health problems, including:

High blood pressure,Heart disease,Diabetes, Obesity, Depression or anxiety, Skin problems, such as acne or eczema and Menstrual problems

If you already have a health condition, chronic stress can make it worse.

SIGNS OF TOO MUCH STRESS

Stress can cause many types of physical and emotional symptoms. Sometimes, you may not realize these symptoms are caused by stress. Here are some signs that stress may be affecting you:

Diarrhea or constipation, Forgetfulness, Frequent aches and pains, Headaches, Lack of energy or focus, Sexual problems, Stiff jaw or neck, Tiredness, Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much, Upset stomach,Use of alcohol or drugs to relax, Weight loss or gain. Read More

What Is Dengue Fever?

Dengue fever is a disease caused by four dengue viruses spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

Once you contract one of the dengue viruses, you develop immunity to that virus for the rest of your life. However, you can still contract the other three viruses, so it’s possible to get all four dengue viruses in your lifetime. The viruses that cause dengue fever are related to those that cause yellow fever and West Nile virus infection.

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that at least 400 million casesTrusted Source of dengue fever occur across the globe every year. Tropical regions are heavily affected. Areas that have the greatest risk of infection includeTrusted Source:

  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Central America
  • Mexico
  • the Caribbean
  • Pacific Islands
  • India
  • South America
  • Southeast Asia
  • Southern China
  • Taiwan
  • northern parts of Australia

Dengue fever symptoms

If you develop dengue fever, symptoms usually begin about 4 to 10 daysTrusted Source after the initial infection. In many cases, symptoms will be mild. They may be mistaken for symptoms of the flu or another infection.

Young children and people who’ve never experienced infection may have a milder illness than older children and adults. Common symptoms generally last for 2 to 7 days and can includeTrusted Source:

Very few cases occur in the United States. Most diagnosed cases occur in people who contracted the virus while traveling abroad. However, risk of infection is increasing for residents of Hawaii, Florida, and in Texas near the Mexican border.

Dengue fever is transmitted via the bite of a mosquito harboring the dengue virus. Person-to-person transmission doesn’t occur. However, a pregnant person with dengue canTrusted Source pass the disease to their child.

  • sudden, high fever (up to 106°F or 41°C)
  • severe headache
  • swollen lymph glands
  • severe joint and muscle pains
  • skin rash (appearing between 2 and 5 days after the initial fever)

Symptoms of severe dengue can include:

  • belly pain and tenderness
  • mild to severe vomiting (three times in 24 hours)
  • mild bleeding from the nose or gums
  • vomiting blood or blood in stool
  • fatigue, restlessness, or irritability

There’s no medicationTrusted Source or treatment specifically made for dengue infection.

If you believe you may have dengue, you should use over-the-counter pain relievers to reduce your fever, headache, and joint pain. However, you should avoid aspirin and ibuprofen, as they can cause more bleeding.

Your doctor will perform a medical exam, and you should rest and drink plenty of fluids. If you feel worse after the first 24 hours of illness — once your fever has gone down — you should be taken to the hospital as soon as possible to check for complications.

Complications of dengue fever

A small percentage of people who have dengue fever can develop a more serious form of disease known as dengue hemorrhagic feverTrusted Source.

Diagnosing dengue fever

Doctors use blood tests to check for antibodies the dengue viruses or the presence of infection. A doctor may use a virological test or a serological test.

Virological test

This test directly tests for elements of the virus. This type of testing often requires specialized equipment and a staff that’s technically trained, so this type of testing may not be available in all medical facilities.

Serological test

This test detects antibodies in the blood to confirm a current or recent infection.

If you experience dengue symptoms after traveling outside the country, you should see a healthcare professional to check whether you have the virus. Read More

Everything You Need to Know About Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a long-term (chronic) condition. It causes:

pain in the muscles and bones (musculoskeletal pain)

areas of tenderness general fatigue

sleep and cognitive disturbances.

This condition can be hard to understand, even for healthcare professionals. Its symptoms mimic those of other conditions, and there aren’t any real tests to confirm the diagnosis. As a result, fibromyalgia is often misdiagnosed.

In the past, some healthcare professionals even questioned whether fibromyalgia was real. Today, it’s much better understood. Some of the stigma that used to surround it has eased.

Fibromyalgia can still be challenging to treat. But medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes can help you to manage your symptoms and to improve your quality of life.

Fibromyalgia symptoms

Fibromyalgia causes what’s now referred to as “regions of pain.” Some of these regions overlap with what was previously referred to as areas of tenderness called “trigger points” or “tender points.” But some of these previously noted areas of tenderness have been excluded.

The pain in these regions feels like a consistent dull ache. Your healthcare professional will consider a diagnosis of fibromyalgia if you’ve experienced musculoskeletal pain in 4 out of the 5 regions of pain outlined in the 2016 revisions to the fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria.

This diagnostic protocol is referred to as “multisite pain.” It’s in contrast to the 1990 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria definition for “chronic widespread pain.”

This process of diagnosis focuses on the areas of musculoskeletal pain and severity of pain as opposed to an emphasis on pain duration, which was previously the focal criteria for a fibromyalgia diagnosis.

This process of diagnosis focuses on the areas of musculoskeletal pain and severity of pain as opposed to an emphasis on pain duration, which was previously the focal criteria for a fibromyalgia diagnosis.

Other symptoms of fibromyalgia include:

fatiguetrouble sleepingsleeping for long periods of time without feeling rested (nonrestorative sleep)headachesdepressionanxietytrouble focusing or paying attentionpain or a dull ache in the lower bellydry eyesbladder problems, like interstitial cystitis

In people with fibromyalgia, the brain and nerves may misinterpret or overreact to normal pain signals. This may be due to a chemical imbalance in the brain or abnormality in the dorsal root ganglionTrusted Source affecting central pain (brain) sensitization.

Fibromyalgia can also affect your emotions and energy level.

Learn which of its symptoms could have the biggest impact on your life.

Fibromyalgia fog

Fibromyalgia fog – also known as “fibro fog” or “brain fog” – is a term some people use to describe the fuzzy feeling they get. Signs of fibro fog include:

memory lapsesdifficulty concentratingtrouble staying alert

According to a 2015 studyTrusted Source published in Rheumatology International, some people find mental fogginess from fibromyalgia more upsetting than pain.


Fibromyalgia symptoms in females

Fibromyalgia symptoms have generally been more severe in female people than in male people. Female people have more widespread pain, IBS symptoms, and morning fatigue than male people. Painful periods are also common.

But when the 2016 revisions to the diagnostic criteria are applied, more male people are being diagnosed with fibromyalgia, which may reduce the degree of distinction between the pain levels that males and females experience. More research needs to be done to further evaluate that distinction.

The transition to menopause could make fibromyalgia worse. Complicating things is the fact that some symptoms of menopause and fibromyalgia look almost identical.

Fibromyalgia in males

Male people also get fibromyalgia. Yet, they may remain undiagnosed because it’s seen as a predominantly female disease. But current statistics show that as the 2016 diagnostic protocol is more readily applied, more male people are being diagnosed.

Male people also have severe pain and emotional symptoms from fibromyalgia. The condition affects the quality of life, career, and relationships of men, according to a 2018 survey published in the American Journal of Public Health.

Part of the stigma and difficulty in getting diagnosed stems from society’s expectation that men who are in pain should “suck it up.” Male people who do venture in to see a doctor can face embarrassment, and the chance that their complaints won’t be taken seriously.

Fibromyalgia trigger points

In the past, people were diagnosed with fibromyalgia if they had widespread pain and tenderness in at least 11 out of 18 specific trigger points around their body. Healthcare professionals would check to see how many of these points were painful by pressing firmly on them.

Common trigger points included the:

back of the headtops of the shouldersupper chesthipskneesouter elbows

For the most part, trigger points are no longer a part of the diagnostic process.

Instead, healthcare professionals may diagnose fibromyalgia if you’ve had pain in 4 out of the 5 areas of pain as defined by the 2016 revised diagnostic criteria, and you have no other diagnosable medical condition that could explain the pain. Read More

Facts About Kidney Stones

Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are solid masses made of crystals. Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys. However, they can develop anywhere along your urinary tract, which consists of these parts:

kidneys,ureters, bladder,urethra

Kidney stones are one of the most painful medical conditions. The causes of kidney stones vary according to the type of stone.

This type of kidney stone is more common in men than in women. They can occur in people with gout or those going through chemotherapy.

This type of stone develops when urine is too acidic. A diet rich in purines can increase urine’s acidic level. Purine is a colorless substance in animal proteins, such as fish, shellfish, and meats.

Struvite

This type of stone is found mostly in women with urinary tract infections (UTIs). These stones can be large and cause urinary obstruction. They result from a kidney infection. Treating an underlying infection can prevent the development of struvite stones.

Cystine

Cystine stones are rare. They occur in both men and women who have the genetic disorder cystinuria. With this type of stone, cystine — an acid that occurs naturally in the body — leaks from the kidneys into the urine.

Types of kidney stones

Not all kidney stones are made up of the same crystals. The different types of kidney stones include:

Calcium

Calcium stones are the most common. They’re often made of calcium oxalate (though they can consist of calcium phosphate or maleate). Eating fewer oxalate-rich foods can reduce your risk of developing this type of stone. High-oxalate foods include:

potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets, spinach

However, even though some kidney stones are made of calcium, getting enough calcium in your diet can prevent stones from forming.



Risk factors for kidney stones

The greatest risk factor for kidney stones is making less than 1 liter of urine per day. This is why kidney stones are common in premature infants who have kidney problems. However, kidney stones are most likely to occur in people between the ages of 20 and 50.

Different factors can increase your risk of developing a stone. In the United States, white people are more likely to have kidney stones than black people.

Sex also plays a role. More men than women develop kidney stones, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

A history of kidney stones can increase your risk. So does a family history of kidney stones.



Other risk factors include:

Dehydration, obesity, a diet with high levels of protein, salt, or glucose, hyperparathyroid condition, gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel diseases that increase calcium absorption taking medications such as triamterene diuretics, antiseizure drugs, and calcium-based antacids

Recognizing the symptoms and signs of a kidney stone

Kidney stones are known to cause severe pain. Symptoms of kidney stones may not occur until the stone begins to move down the ureters. This severe pain is called renal colic. You may have pain on one side of your back or abdomen.

In men, pain may radiate to the groin area. The pain of renal colic comes and goes, but can be intense. People with renal colic tend to be restless.



Other symptoms of kidney stones can include:



blood in the urine (red, pink, or brown urine) vomiting, nausea, discolored or foul-smelling, urine, chills, fever,etc. Read More

How Much Do You Know About Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Many prostate cancers grow slowly and are confined to the prostate gland, where they may not cause serious harm. However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.

Symptoms

Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages.

Prostate cancer that’s more advanced may cause signs and symptoms such as:

Trouble urinating, Decreased force in the stream of urine, Blood in the urine, Blood in the semen, Bone pain, Losing weight without trying and Erectile dysfunction

CAUSES


It’s not clear what causes prostate cancer.

Researchers know that prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate develop changes in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The changes tell the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when other cells would die.

The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can grow to invade nearby tissue. In time, some abnormal cells can break away and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

Risk factors

Factors that can increase your risk of prostate cancer include:

Older age: Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you age. It’s most common after age 50.

Race: For reasons not yet determined, Black people have a greater risk of prostate cancer than do people of other races. In Black people, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced.

Family history: If a blood relative, such as a parent, sibling or child, has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.

Obesity: People who are obese may have a higher risk of prostate cancer compared with people considered to have a healthy weight, though studies have had mixed results. In obese people, the cancer is more likely to be more aggressive and more likely to return after initial treatment.

Prevention

You can reduce your risk of prostate cancer if you:

Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables. Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health.

Whether you can prevent prostate cancer through diet has yet to be conclusively proved. But eating a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health.

Choose healthy foods over supplements. No studies have shown that supplements play a role in reducing your risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals so that you can maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body. Exercise most days of the week. Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. Try to exercise most days of the week. If you’re new to exercise, start slow and work your way up to more exercise time each day. Maintain a healthy weight. If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor for help creating a plan for healthy weight loss.

Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer. If you have a very high risk of prostate cancer, you and your doctor may consider medications or other treatments to reduce the risk. Some studies suggest that taking 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, including finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart), may reduce the overall risk of developing prostate cancer. These drugs are used to control prostate gland enlargement and hair loss.

However, some evidence indicates that people taking these medications may have an increased risk of getting a more serious form of prostate cancer (high-grade prostate cancer). If you’re concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer, talk with your doctor. Read More

Are You Trying To Stop A Cough? Try This!

First Let’s Know What A Cough Is?

A cough is a reflex that helps clear ones airways of irritants. Nerves in the airways become stimulated by allergens, medical conditions, medications, and other irritants, resulting in a forceful expulsion of air from the lungs.

Causes Of Cough

There are several causes of cough but the common ones include:

  • Allergens
  • pollen, dust, animal dander, andmold.
  • Irritants
  • smoking, inhaling secondhand smoke, pollution, chemical fumes, perfumes, and air fresheners.

Medical Conditions That Makes Us Cough Are:

Common cold, Upper respiratory tract infection, Flu, Pneumonia, Whooping cough, Asthma, Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Sinus infections, Postnasal drip, Acute bronchitis, Chronic bronchitis, Bronchiectasis, Emphysema, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Lung cancer, and Heart failure.

Medications: ACE inhibitors and Beta blockers.

A dry cough is usually the result of

cold and flu viruses, allergies, acid reflux, ACE inhibitor medications, and irritants such as cigarette smoke.

A wet cough is mostly caused by Cold or Flu viruses, or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

A persistent, or chronic cough is one that lasts for more than 3 weeks and may be caused by heart disease, asthma, lung disease, bronchitis, and whooping cough.

12 Natrual and Home Remedies To Cure Or Soothe A Cough

Stay hydrated: Drinking lots of water helps to thin mucus.

Inhaling steam: By taking a hot shower, or by boiling water and pouring it into a bowl, stay at leasta foot away , place a towel over your head to form an enclosure over the bowl and inhale. Stop if you feel uncomfortable and Note: do not do this if cough is due to asthma, as steam may make symptoms worse.

Use a humidifier to loosen mucus.

Cough drops or lozenges soothe an irritated throat (do not use in young children).

Gargling Saltwater helps clear mucus from the throat.

Using an extra pillow to elevate your head at night.

Use honey. It can be used alone in adults and children over 1 year of age, and acts as a cough suppressant.

Ginger tea soothes throat inflammation.

Eucalyptus oil: Use it in a vaporizer or rub on your chest to help break up mucus.

Mint: Often taken as a tea, helps loosen mucus in the lungs.

Menthol is commonly found in lozenges, and it can soothe a cough.

Apple cider vinegar, when diluted or mixed with honey helps thin mucus.

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