Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of PCOS often develop around the time of the first menstrual period during puberty. Sometimes PCOS develops later, for example, in response to substantial weight gain.

Signs and symptoms of PCOS vary. A diagnosis of PCOS is made when you experience at least two of these signs:

Irregular periods. Infrequent, irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles are the most common sign of PCOS. For example, you might have fewer than nine periods a year, more than 35 days between periods and abnormally heavy periods.Excess androgen. Elevated levels of male hormones may result in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), and occasionally severe acne and male-pattern baldness.Polycystic ovaries. Your ovaries might be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. As a result, the ovaries might fail to function regularly.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have concerns about your menstrual periods, if you’re experiencing infertility or if you have signs of excess androgen such as worsening hirsutism, acne and male-pattern baldness.

Causes

The exact cause of PCOS isn’t known. Factors that might play a role include:

Excess insulin. Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar, your body’s primary energy supply. If your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, then your blood sugar levels can rise and your body might produce more insulin. Excess insulin might increase androgen production, causing difficulty with ovulation.Low-grade inflammation. This term is used to describe white blood cells’ production of substances to fight infection. Research has shown that women with PCOS have a type of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.Heredity. Research suggests that certain genes might be linked to PCOS.Excess androgen. The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne.

Treatment

PCOS treatment focuses on managing your individual concerns, such as infertility, hirsutism, acne or obesity. Specific treatment might involve lifestyle changes or medication.

Lifestyle changes

Your doctor may recommend weight loss through a low-calorie diet combined with moderate exercise activities. Even a modest reduction in your weight — for example, losing 5 percent of your body weight — might improve your condition. Losing weight may also increase the effectiveness of medications your doctor recommends for PCOS, and can help with infertility.

Medications

To regulate your menstrual cycle, your doctor might recommend:

Combination birth control pills. Pills that contain estrogen and progestin decrease androgen production and regulate estrogen. Regulating your hormones can lower your risk of endometrial cancer and correct abnormal bleeding, excess hair growth and acne. Instead of pills, you might use a skin patch or vaginal ring that contains a combination of estrogen and progestin.

Progestin therapy. Taking progestin for 10 to 14 days every one to two months can regulate your periods and protect against endometrial cancer. Progestin therapy doesn’t improve androgen levels and won’t prevent pregnancy. The progestin-only minipill or progestin-containing intrauterine device is a better choice if you also wish to avoid pregnancy.

To help you ovulate, your doctor might recommend:

  • Clomiphene. This oral anti-estrogen medication is taken during the first part of your menstrual cycle.
  • Letrozole (Femara). This breast cancer treatment can work to stimulate the ovaries.
  • Metformin. This oral medication for type 2 diabetes improves insulin resistance and lowers insulin levels. If you don’t become pregnant using clomiphene, your doctor might recommend adding metformin. If you have prediabetes, metformin can also slow the progression to type 2 diabetes and help with weight loss.
  • Gonadotropins. These hormone medications are given by injection.

To reduce excessive hair growth, your doctor might recommend:

  • Birth control pills. These pills decrease androgen production that can cause excessive hair growth.Spironolactone (Aldactone). This medication blocks the effects of androgen on the skin.
  • Spironolactone can cause birth defects, so effective contraception is required while taking this medication. It isn’t recommended if you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant.Eflornithine (Vaniqa). This cream can slow facial hair growth in women.
  • Electrolysis. A tiny needle is inserted into each hair follicle. The needle emits a pulse of electric current to damage and eventually destroy the follicle. You might need multiple treatments.

Impressive Benefits of Coconut

It’s used for its water, milk, oil, and tasty meat.

Coconuts have been grown in tropical regions for more than 4,500 years but recently increased in popularity for their flavor, culinary uses, and potential health benefits (1).

Healthier eating shouldn’t be a hassle. We’ll send you our evidence-based advice on nutrition and weight loss.

Unlike many other fruits that are high in carbs, coconuts provide mostly fat (5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).

They also contain protein, several important minerals, and small amounts of B vitamins. However, they’re not a significant source of most other vitamins (5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source).

The minerals in coconut are involved in many functions in your body. Coconuts are especially high in manganese, which is essential for bone health and the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and cholesterol (8Trusted Source).

They’re also rich in copper and iron, which help form red blood cells, as well as selenium, an important antioxidant that protects your cells.

Here are the nutrition facts for 1 cup (100 grams) of raw and dried coconut meat (5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source):

Much of the fat in coconut is in the form of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) (9Trusted Source, 10Trusted Source, 11Trusted Source).

Your body metabolizes MCTs differently than other types of fats, absorbing them directly from your small intestine and rapidly using them for energy (12Trusted Source, 13Trusted Source, 14Trusted Source).

One review on the benefits of MCTs in people with obesity found these fats may promote body fat loss when eaten in place of long-chain saturated fats from animal foods (14Trusted Source).Types of coconut products

The raw white meat inside a coconut is referred to as the kernel. It has a firm texture and delicious, slightly sweet flavor (2).

If you have a whole coconut, you can scrape the raw meat out of the shell and eat it. In its processed form, you’ll usually find it sliced, shaved, or grated (2, 3).

Coconut milk and cream are made by pressing the raw, grated meat (2, 3).

Dried coconut meat is usually grated or shaved and used in cooking or baking. It can be further processed and ground into flour (2, 3).

Coconut oil is also extracted from the meat (2, 3, 4Trusted Source). Read More

Benefits Of Wheat

The reason wheat-free or gluten-free diets have become popular is that people who cut down wheat or eliminate wheat from their diet end up avoiding excess calories in sweets, snacks, pizza, and other junk food foods. This is resulting in people feeling healthier as well as weight loss, and it is causing people to mistakenly assume that gluten-containing foods/wheat is bad for health. On the contrary, wheat has been found to have several health benefits, such as a reduced risk of diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity. Wheat also fuels the body and essential for various body functions. Healthy preparations of wheat, without excess oil or sugar, is not bad for health. Several diets like the Mediterranean diet and the MyPlan diet recommended by the United States government recommend including wheat as an essential part of the diet.

Consuming too much wheat can cause the intestines to work harder resulting in sluggish digestion causing digestive problems, such as water retention, bloating, and gas. Hence, it is important to eat a balanced diet incorporating wheat in proportion.

A department of the United States government, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), has created a helpful guide for adults and children to be as healthy as possible by ensuring a balanced diet called the MyPlate diet plan. “MyPlate” replaces the familiar “food pyramid,” which has been found to be obsolete. The MyPlate model shows the five food groups (fruits, vegetables, proteins, grains, and dairy) in proportions, making it easier to understand the types of food and the quantity to include in each meal to have a healthy and balanced diet. The plate is divided into four unequal sections to represent different food groups.

The main food groups are:

VegetablesGrains (wheat)ProteinFruitDairy

In the MyPlate diet plan, vegetables make up the largest portion on the plate, which is 40% of the plate, followed by grains, which is 30% of the plate. Fruits make up 10% of the plate and protein makes up 20%. Fruits and vegetables fill half the plate while proteins and grains fill the other half. A small amount of dairy in a glass (e.g. milk) or cup (e.g. yogurt) is incorporated into the diet. Read More

Health Benefits Of Fish Oil For The Skin

Fish oil comes from fish that are rich in omega-3, such as mackerel and herring. Some studies suggest that fish oil may benefit people with certain skin conditions, though not all researchers agree.

Omega-3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which is a type of nutrient that the body cannot make for itself.

In this article, we look at fish oil for the skin, including its potential benefits, what the research says, and which skin conditions it may help. We also discuss how to use fish oil to get the maximum benefit.

A 2018 review in Marine DrugsTrusted Source notes that fish oil and its components, including omega-3, can help support the skin’s overall health. The review found evidence that fish oil can help by:

  • maintaining homeostasis
  • improving barrier function
  • inhibiting inflammation, particularly from UV light
  • promoting skin healing

Scientists believe that these benefits are due to the PUFAs in fish oil, which include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

The body incorporates dietary fatty acids into cell membranes. When a cell membrane is healthy, the cell can hold water. In the skin, this results in cells being hydrated and soft. Omega-3 fatty acids also help reduce the production of inflammatory compounds that contribute to the aging process.

Some fish oils contain other nutrients, such as vitamin A, vitamin D, and selenium. Vitamin A is an antioxidant related to retinol, a popular ingredient in skin care products and a treatment for skin disorders.

However, while evidence supports the idea that fish oil boosts general skin health, the research on its benefits for specific skin conditions is more mixed. Read More

HIV/AIDS Symptoms, Stages, & Early Warning Signs

Early testing is important for two reasons. First, at this stage, levels of HIV in your blood and bodily fluids are very high. This makes it especially contagious. Second, starting treatment as soon as possible might help boost your immune system and ease your symptoms.

A combination of medications (called HIV drugs, antiretroviral therapy, or ART) can help fight HIV, keep your immune system healthy, and keep you from spreading the virus. If you take these medications and have healthy habits, your HIV infection probably won’t get worse.

Second Stage: Clinical Latency Symptoms

After your immune system loses the battle with HIV, the flu-like symptoms will go away. But there’s a lot going on inside your body. Doctors call this the asymptomatic period or chronic HIV infection.

In your body, cells called CD4 T cells coordinate your immune system’s response. During this stage, untreated HIV will kill CD4 cells and destroy your immune system. Your doctor can check how many of these cells you have with blood tests. Without treatment, the number of CD4 cells will drop, and you’ll be more likely to get other infections.

Most people don’t have symptoms they can see or feel. You may not realize that you’re infected and can pass HIV on to others.

If you’re taking ART, you might stay in this phase for decades. You can pass the virus on to other people, but it’s extremely rare if you take your medicines.

Third Stage: AIDS Symptoms

AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV infection. This is usually when your CD4 T-cell number drops below 200 and your immune system is badly damaged. You might get an opportunistic infection, an illness that happens more often and is worse in people who have weakened immune systems. Some of these, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma (a form of skin cancer) and pneumocystis pneumonia (a lung disease), are also considered “AIDS-defining illnesses.”

If you didn’t know earlier that you were infected with HIV, you may realize it after you have some of these symptoms:

Being tired all the time, Swollen lymph nodes in your neck or groin, Fever that lasts more than 10 days, Night sweats, Weight loss with no obvious reason, Purplish spots on your skin that don’t go away, Shortness of breath, Severe, long-lasting diarrhea, Yeast infections in your mouth, throat, or vagina, Bruises or bleeding you can’t explain, Neurological symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, balance problems, behavior changes, seizures, and vision changes

People with AIDS who don’t take medication live about 3 years, or less if they get another infection. But HIV can still be treated at this stage. If you start on HIV drugs, stay on them, follow your doctor’s advice, and keep healthy habits, you can live a long time.

Health Benefits Of Tomato

A tomato is a nutrient-dense superfood that offers benefit to a range of bodily systems. Its nutritional content supports healthful skin, weight loss, and heart health.

Despite the popularity of tomatoes, it was only 200 years ago that they were thought to be poisonous in the United States (U.S.) This is likely to be because the plant belongs to the toxic nightshade family.

Tomatoes are now the fourth most popular fresh-market vegetable behind potatoes, lettuce, and onions. This article will examine their powerful health benefits, nutritional content, ways to include more tomatoes in the diet, and the risks of tomato consumption.

Including tomatoes in the diet can help protect against cancer, maintain healthy blood pressure, and reduce blood glucose in people with diabetes.Tomatoes contain key carotenoids such as lutein and lycopene. These can protect the eye against light-induced damage.Eat more tomatoes by adding them to wraps or sandwiches, sauces, or salsas. Alternatively, eat them cooked or stewed, as these preparation methods can boost the availability of key nutrients.Tomatoes are in the top ten fruits and vegetables for containing levels of pesticide residue. Wash tomatoes before eating.

The benefits of consuming different types of fruit and vegetable are impressive, and tomatoes are no different. As the proportion of plant foods in the diet increases, the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, and cancer decreases.

There are different types and sizes of tomato, and they can be prepared in different ways. These include cherry tomatoes, stewed tomatoes, raw tomatoes, soups, juices, and purees.

The health benefits can vary between types. For example, cherry tomatoes have higher beta-carotene content than regular tomatoes.

High fruit and vegetable intake is also linked to healthy skin and hair, increased energy, and lower weight. Increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly decreases the risk of obesity and overall mortality. Read More

HEALTH BENEFITS OF WATER MELON

Loaded With Lycopene

The cheery red color comes from lycopene, an antioxidant. Studies show it may help curb your risk of cancer and diabetes as part of a healthy lifestyle. Watermelon has more of this nutrient than any other fruit or veggie — even tomatoes. To load up on lycopene, choose a melon with bright red flesh rather than yellow or orange. And the riper, the better. Also, seedless melon tends to have more lycopene than those with seeds.

Sun Benefit?

Some pigments help protect plants from the sun. Oddly enough, just eating them may shield your skin, too — at least a little. The lycopene in watermelon may make it less likely that you get sunburned. But that’s not for sure, so keep using your broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF of 30 or higher every day.

Healthier Heart

Watermelon is rich in an amino acid called citrulline that may help move blood through your body and can lower your blood pressure. Your heart also enjoys the perks of all the lycopene watermelon contains. Studies show that it may lower your risk of heart attacks. Of course, your whole lifestyle affects your heart health. So make sure you also work out, don’t smoke, limit saturated fat, and keep up with your doctor’s advice.

Protects Your Joints

Watermelon has a natural pigment called beta-cryptoxanthin that may protect your joints from inflammation. Some studies show that over time, it could make you less likely to get rheumatoid arthritis.

Easy on Your Eyes

Just one medium slice of watermelon gives you contains 9-11% of the vitamin A you need each day. This nutrient is one of the keys to keeping your eyes healthy. Foods are the best ways to get all the vitamins and minerals that your body needs.

Naturally Sweet Hydration

Juicy watermelon is 92% water, so it’s a simple way to help stay hydrated. Every cell in your body needs water. Even a small shortage can make you feel sluggish. If you get really dehydrated, it can become serious enough that you need to get fluids by IV.

Soothes Your Skin

Vitamins A, B6, and C in watermelon help your skin stay soft, smooth, and supple. Because it’s loaded with water, melon also makes a great face mask. Mix 1 tablespoon of watermelon juice with the same amount of Greek yogurt. Spread over your face and leave on for 10 minutes to slough off any dry, dull skin. Rinse and pat dry.

Satisfies Your Sweet Tooth

A cup of ice cream will set you back around 300 calories. You can enjoy the same amount of watermelon for just 45.6 calories. And unlike many other desserts, it’s fat-free, cholesterol free, and has no sodium. Plus, the water in it will help you stay fuller longer. To make an easy sorbet, puree some watermelon in your blender, add a squeeze of lime, and pop in the freezer until it hardens. Read More

Hepatitis C Facts

Hepatitis C (HCV) is a virus that causes inflammation of the liver. It is a member of the family of viruses that includes hepatitis A and hepatitis B. These viruses behave differently and have different modes of transmission. Hepatitis C can cause serious liver damage, liver failure, liver cancer, and even death.Exactly how many cases of hepatitis C there are around the world is unknown, but the World Health Organization estimates that .5% to 1% of the population is infected, with prevalence higher in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean.Hepatitis C is a blood-borne illness, meaning it is transmitted via contact with infected blood. Usually the virus enters the body through a puncture wound on the skin. The most common way hepatitis C is transmitted is via injection drug use. Sharing dirty needles with someone who is infected can transmit hepatitis C. Health care professionals may contract the virus via needlestick injury. Prior to 1992, the U.S. blood supply was not screened the way it is today, so some people contracted hepatitis C from infected blood transfusions. Rarely, babies born to hepatitis C-infected mothers acquire the virus. Hepatitis C can also be spread by having sex with an infected person or sharing personal items (for example, a razor or toothbrush) with someone who has the virus, but these cases are rare.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Hepatitis C?

Most people who contract hepatitis C do not have any symptoms, especially in the early stages. However, some people do develop early symptoms, which may include:

Painful joints Fever Rash Swelling

But 3 out of 4 cases result in a chronic infection. In these people, symptoms may develop years, even decades later, when liver damage occurs. Others develop symptoms from 2 weeks to 6 months after infection. The average time to develop symptoms is 6 to 7 weeks after acquiring the virus. Those newly infected with hepatitis C may experience mild-to-severe fever, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, dark urine, clay-colored stool, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). A person who has hepatitis C infection but isn’t exhibiting any symptoms can still pass the virus on to others.

Acute vs. Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

Acute hepatitis C infection refers to symptoms that appear within 6 months of newly acquiring the virus. About 20% to 30% of those who acquire hepatitis C experience acute illness. After this, the body either clears the virus or goes on to develop chronic infection. Chronic hepatitis C infection refers to long-lasting infection. The majority of people who have acute hepatitis C infection (75% to 85%) go on to develop the chronic form of the illness.

How Is Hepatitis C Diagnosed?

Hepatitis C infection is diagnosed with several blood tests. The hepatitis C antibody test checks for antibodies (immune particles) that fight the virus. A “non-reactive” result means that antibodies to the virus are not detected. A “reactive” result means antibodies to the virus are present, but the test is unable to indicate whether the infection is current or in the past. Another blood test assessing the presence of hepatitis C genetic material (HCV RNA test) is available. The results of this test can help doctors determine whether hepatitis C infection is current or not. Additional blood tests can be used to determine the amount of virus in the body, known as a titer.

When someone has confirmed hepatitis C infection, the doctor will order more tests to assess the degree of liver damage. A liver biopsy may be performed. There are several different strains of hepatitis C virus that respond to different treatments. For this reason, the doctor will order a test to determine the genotype(s) of the hepatitis C infection to help determine the course of treatment.

Potential Complications of Hepatitis C

Chronic hepatitis C infection is a long-lasting illness with potentially serious complications. About 75% to 85% of those with acute hepatitis C infection go on to develop chronic illness. Of those in the chronic illness group, more than two-thirds will develop liver disease. Up to 20% will develop cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver, within 20 to 30 years. Cirrhosis affects liver function and causes elevated blood liver enzymes. Up to 5% of people with chronic hepatitis C infection will die from liver cancer or cirrhosis. Chronic hepatitis C infection is the most common reason for liver transplantation in the U.S.

Hepatitis C (Hep C) Treatment: Antivirals

Hepatitis C treatment has changed dramatically in the past five years. Researchers now rely on antiviral medicines to target the virus and stop it from reproducing. These are taken in pill form whereas older medicines were taken by IV.

Hepatitis C and Liver Transplantation

Some people with advanced hepatitis C infection and severe liver damage undergo a liver transplant, but that doesn’t eradicate the infection. Patients with active infection at the time of the transplant will develop hepatitis C in the new liver. Sometimes the infection recurs even when patients are on antiviral treatment. Those who have achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) – meaning no detectable virus in the blood 6 months after treatment – have a very low risk of developing hepatitis C infection in the new liver.

How to Prevent Giving Hepatitis C

If you have hepatitis C, these common precautions should be followed to prevent spreading or giving hepatitis C to others:

Cover cuts and blistersProperly dispose of any used bandages, tissues, tampons, or anything else containing your bloodWash your hands or any objects that have encountered your bloodClean spilled blood on surfaces with household bleach and waterDon’t share personal items that have your blood on itDo not breastfeed if your nipples becomes cracked and bleedDo not donate blood, sperm, or organs. Read More

Health Facts About Tangerine

Tangerine is a citrus fruit that grows in tropical areas of Asia.

People take tangerine peel by mouth for asthma, indigestion, clogged arteries, cancer prevention, chemotherapy side effects, colon and rectal cancer, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), liver disease, and lung cancer.

Tangerine fruit and peel can be eaten as a food. Tangerine fruit can also be made into a juice.

How does it work?

Tangerine might reduce the risk of cancer. The tangerine peel seems to stop the growth of, or increase the death of, cancer cells.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for…

Cancer. Early research suggests that eating a lot of oranges and/or tangerines is linked to a lower risk of developing a type of cancer called nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This type of cancer affects the area behind the nose, where it meets the throat. Asthma. Indigestion. Clogged arteries. Chemotherapy side effects. Colon and rectal cancer. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Liver disease. Lung cancer. Other conditions.

Tangerine is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts found in foods. There isn’t enough reliable information available about tangerine to know if it is safe when used as a medicine.

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking tangerine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Read More

Reasons Why You Are Tired After Surgery

When you are tired after surgery, your body is telling you to rest.

Patients often question why they are so tired after surgery. Many patients think that because they have been “put to sleep with anesthesia” that they should be refreshed and have more energy as they recover from their surgery. However, the tired feeling (fatigue) after surgery is the usual situation for most patients and there are some reasons for this outcome.

Some reasons begin even before surgery. For example, many patients have anxiety about undergoing any type of surgery and find it difficult to sleep, especially right before the date of surgery. Consequently, many patients have a sleep deficit even before they undergo surgery. This sleep deficit must be made up so the body triggers “sleepiness or fatigue” as a way to pay off this deficit. Anesthetics do not make up for this sleep deficit, so the body still has it after surgery.

One of the consequences of low red blood count (anemia) is that the person can have fatigue. If patients have a history of anemia before surgery, they are already primed to feel tired and sleepy after surgery. Even patients who are not anemic before surgery may become anemic during or after surgery because of blood loss during and after the procedure. In addition to feeling fatigued and/or sleepy, patients who have lost blood may have a tendency to feel weak and/or dizzy when they try to sit up or stand up. Also, they may feel fatigued because they work harder to breathe since the anemia has decreased oxygen-carrying capacity due to fewer red blood cells available to carry oxygen to the body’s tissues.

During or after surgery, a number of medications may be administered that are used to alter blood pressure during the procedure. Frequently used drugs are blood pressure medications like metoprolol (Lopressor) or diuretics (for example, hydrochlorothiazide) to reduce blood pressure.

Side effects of these drugs include fatigue. After surgery, medications like benzodiazepines (for example, lorazepam) may be used for sedation and/or muscle spasms. The benzodiazepines are also used to treat insomnia and can cause sleepiness. In many individuals, antibiotics are started during or right after the surgical procedure. Some antibiotics — like cephalexin (Keflex), and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) — can cause fatigue.

Depression, both before and after surgery, can produce fatigue. Some patients have fatigue caused by anxiety about pain control, surgical outcome, and concerns about new medications, or the need for rehabilitation, cost of care, family situations, and many other problems. Discovering and addressing depression and anxiety before and after surgery may help reduce mental fatigue seen in some surgical patients.

Nevertheless, it is possible to reduce some of the fatigue many patients feel after surgical procedures. Keeping blood loss (anemia) to a minimum; replacing fluid, electrolytes, and minerals quickly; avoiding potentially fatigue-inducing medications; and reducing stress (both mental and physical) before and after surgery will likely reduce fatigue. Finally, it’s likely that after any surgery a person will feel some fatigue. For goodness sake, don’t keep a postsurgical patient awake right after surgery with an excessive number of visitors who want to talk! Let the surgical patient rest to reduce fatigue and speed recovery. Read More

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